The Amstrad PC 1640 character set is similar to Code Page 437, but it has a double exclamation mark‼ It’s used for maths and coding, but it also refers to retroflex clicks like ᵑ̊‼ʰ.
The European font of the Sega SC-3000. Notice how curvy the full triangles and slashes are. Images from SMS Power and Saverio Russo.
By Ray Manta, @datad00r, using his own Circlex charset, now available in Retrospecs.
The 8×16 system font of the Atari ST (1985), available here.
Datafall by Ray Manta, made with his custom charset in Retrospecs.
Jindai moji, supposedly used in Japan in the 17th century, via @tkasasagi.
This recent Unicode-proposal about 8-bit character sets is a great initiative, although it only includes platforms that were popular in USA and UK. For now. ;) The uncredited PETSCII Darth Vader is by Ailadi, btw.
Sharp MZ-700 character sets (Japanese first, European second), from sharpmz.org. See sharpscii graphics here.
Tatung Einstein (1984) and its rather special character set. Also, don’t miss the active Geocities-style site tatungeinstein.co.uk. Photos from here and here.